|2009 papers important for understanding autism
members of the IACC as relevant to the problems of children with autism:
The following two papers by Russo et al. are most important because they (a) address
the core handicap of children with autism, developmental language disorder, and (b)
underlying impairments in the brain are investigated:
speech is disrupted in children with autism spectrum disorders.
children with ASD.
on cortical encoding of speech in autism spectrum disorders.
children with ASD.
with neurological impairment rather than self-stimulation. Impairment of fronto-striatal
basal ganglia circuitry and cerebellum is suggested as part of early life disruption of
subcortical neuronal networks.
stereotypies in children with autism and other developmental disorders.
children with autism compared with a large number of control subjects. Autism was
associated with breech presentation and primary (as opposed to repeat) cesarean
section. Because breech presentation is a rationale for cesarean delivery, it was not
cited as a primary risk factor. Breech presentation was cited as a shared rather than
causal risk factor for autism. Other findings included over-representation of first-born
and advanced maternal age.
and neonatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorders.
mention how the brain might be affected by breech or cesarean birth. The
concern is that the infant will suffer oxygen deprivation. An infant born by
cesarean section is less ready to give up placental respiration and begin
the transition to lung inflation. This along with other epidemiology reports
adds to the evidence that perinatal complications are associated with autism.
processing disorder (SPD) and 467 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) attending a
clinic for occupational therapy. Assisted deliveries (C-section, induced labor, forceps
and/or suction) were reported in 43.5% of children with ASD, and jaundice was reported
in 30.2%. Delays in motor milestones (rolling over, sitting, crawling, standing, and
walking) were commonly reported in addition to developmental language disorder.
natal birth and developmental problems of children with sensory processing
disorder and children with autism spectrum disorder.
demonstrated poor sensory processing and had damage to auditory
and tactile processing areas of the brain.” [p 31]
at the present time. Retrospective chart reviews are often unfairly
discredited, but how do insurance companies collect data? No specific
unifying features were found in this study, but the authors suggested that,
“a number of subtle pathologic factors may occur in combination, and may
be influenced by genetics” [p2]. Birth injury needs to be a focus of research
as a predisposition for autism. Obvious problems like prenatal use of drugs
and clamping off umbilical blood flow before the first breath should be
Zhang X, Lv CC, Tian J, Miao RJ, Xi W, Hertz-Picciotto I, Qi L. Prenatal and
Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China.
and four controls. Differences approached but did not meet t-test requirements for
statistical significance. Discussion of long-known decreased numbers of Purkinje cells
points to loss late in gestation or in the postnatal period. Discussion of one prominent
outlier autism case underscores diversity of those afflicted with autism.
cerebellar basket and stellate cells in autism: evidence for a late
developmental loss of Purkinje cells.
must all affect the “final common pathway” in the brain. The cerebellum is
part of the final common pathway, perhaps responsible for motor
disturbances in some individuals with autism, but probably not responsible
for the core handicap of developmental language disorder. This paper
adds useful evidence from investigation of brain tissue, which must continue
to be done.
Posted April 19, 2010, in progress
More articles relevant to autism published in 2009:
possible sites of impairment in children with autism.
8. Brun CC, Nicolson R, Leporé N, Chou YY, Vidal CN, Devito TJ, Drost DJ,
Williamson PC, Rajakumar N, Toga AW, Thompson PM. Mapping brain
abnormalities in boys with autism. Hum Brain Mapp.
9. Buhimschi CS, Weiner CP. Medications in pregnancy and lactation: part 1
10. Buhimschi CS, Weiner CP. Medications in pregnancy and lactation: Part 2.
Drugs with minimal or unknown human teratogenic effect.
11. Fuentes CT, Mostofsky SH, Bastian AJ. Children with autism show specific
RE, Felopulos GJ, Bauman ML. Brief report: macrographia in high-
functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.
dexterity in adults who were developmentally delayed in childhood.
Keshavan MS, Minshew NJ. Corpus callosum volume in children with autism.
metabolic disturbance--toxicity of 5-FU for pyrimidine metabolic disorders and
volumetric alterations in children with autism.
16. Kuhara T, Ohse M, Inoue Y, Shinka T. Five cases of beta-ureidopropionase
deficiency detected by GC/MS analysis of urine metabolome.
17. Li H, Steyger PS. Synergistic ototoxicity due to noise exposure and
18. Mercer J, Bewley S. Could early cord clamping harm neonatal stabilization?
Lancet. 2009 Aug 1;374(9687):377-8.
19. Moncrieff J. A critique of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and
20. Mosconi MW, Cody-Hazlett H, Poe MD, Gerig G, Gimpel-Smith R, Piven J.
Longitudinal study of amygdala volume and joint attention in 2- to 4-year-old
21.Odd DE, Lewis G, Whitelaw A, Gunnell D. Resuscitation at birth and cognition
22. Reiman M, Parkkola R, Johansson R, Jääskeläinen SK, Kujari H, Lehtonen L,
Haataja L, Lapinleimu H; PIPARI Study Group. Diffusion tensor imaging of the
inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants.
23. Sullivan EV, Pfefferbaum A. Neuroimaging of the Wernicke-Korsakoff
24. Toal F, Bloemen OJ, Deeley Q, Tunstall N, Daly EM, Page L, Brammer MJ,
Murphy KC, Murphy DG. Psychosis and autism: magnetic resonance imaging