A decade online (2000-2010)
Instrument of harm
The first breath
Postnatal placental circulation
Comments for the IACC
Conrad Simon (1963-1995)
Pictures (Conrad & his brothers)
Death in a group home
© Copyright 1999-2010
Eileen Nicole Simon
Conrad Simon Memorial Research Initiative
1950s - The Apgar score
in 1953 . In 1958, Apgar (and her colleagues) wrote that scoring at one
minute was done because this was the time of most severe depression:
infant is in the hands of an individual other than the obstetrician.
In many hospitals, such is not the case. Those obstetricians who
practice slow delivery and delayed clamping of the cord until
pulsations of the umbilical artery cease still have the infant in the
sterile field. However, if the obstetrician is reminded of the passage
of time by another observer, he may assign a score even though
the cord is still attached," [9, p1987]
perceived need to remove the newborn from the "sterile field" for repair of
the episiotomy, manage delivery of the placenta, and to give the infant to
neonatal specialists, often for resuscitation. Note that Apgar recognized
that "slow delivery" and waiting for pulsation of the umbilical arteries to
cease was still common practice.
infant . Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia 32:260-267.
Online at: http://apgar.net/virginia/Apgar_Paper.html
9. Apgar V, Holaday DA, James LS, Weisbrot IM. Evaluation of the newborn infant –
second report. JAMA 1958; 168(15):1985-9.