A decade online (2000-2010)

New Decade
Dr. Morley
Neonatal transition
Dr. Hutchon

Instrument of harm
The first breath
Postnatal placental circulation

Comments for the IACC


Conrad Simon (1963-1995)
Pictures (Conrad & his brothers)
Traumatic birth
Death in a group home

© Copyright 1999-2010
Eileen Nicole Simon
Conrad Simon Memorial Research Initiative

1950s - The Apgar score

    Virginia Apgar introduced her system for scoring the condition of the newborn
    in 1953 [8].  In 1958, Apgar (and her colleagues) wrote that scoring at one
    minute was done because this was the time of most severe depression:

    "In the Sloane Hospital the cord has been cut by this time, and the
    infant is in the hands of an individual other than the obstetrician.
    In many hospitals, such is not the case.  Those obstetricians who
    practice slow delivery and delayed clamping of the cord until
    pulsations of the umbilical artery cease still have the infant in the
    sterile field.  However, if the obstetrician is reminded of the passage
    of time by another observer, he may assign a score even though
    the cord is still attached," [9, p1987]

    Thus the Apgar score devised more than half a century ago reflected the
    perceived need to remove the newborn from the "sterile field" for repair of
    the episiotomy, manage delivery of the placenta, and to give the infant to
    neonatal specialists, often for resuscitation.  Note that Apgar recognized
    that "slow delivery" and waiting for pulsation of the umbilical arteries to
    cease was still common practice.
8. Apgar V (1953) A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn
     infant .   Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia 32:260-267.
     Online at:
9. Apgar V, Holaday DA, James LS, Weisbrot IM. Evaluation of the newborn infant –
     second report. JAMA 1958; 168(15):1985-9.
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