and its blood vessels; the infant's heart pumps blood through the umbilical
arteries to the placenta, which delivers oxygen and nutrients to the baby via
the umbilical vein. Spivack observed that the umbilical arteries close quickly
after onset of respiration, and commented:
its pulmonary respiration is the main factor in bringing about
closure of the umbilical arteries…
ligation of the cord is not paramount in the care of the stump."
bleeding. However, Spivack cited Engelmann (1883) who noted that the
umbilical arteries have an intrinsic capacity to check their bleeding in
unaided labor .
their clinical significance. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1946 Sep; 52(3):387-401.
15. Engelmann GJ. Labor among primitive peoples. Showing the development
of the obstetric science of today, from the natural and instinctive customs
of all races, civilized and savage, past and present. Second edition--
revised, enlarged and rearranged. Fifty-nine illustrations. St. Louis, J.H.
Chambers & Co., 1883
A decade online (2000-2010)
Instrument of harm
The first breath
>>Postnatal placental circulation
Comments for the IACC
Conrad Simon (1963-1995)
Pictures (Conrad & his brothers)
Death in a group home
© Copyright 1999-2010
Eileen Nicole Simon
Conrad Simon Memorial Research Initiative